The Spanish hallmark, found on urban systems around the world

THE SPANISH ENTERPRENEURIAL FABRIC IS NOWADAYS VIEWED AS A GO-TO EXPERT IN THE SERVICE START-UP OF THE MOST MODERN URBAN TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS. THIS IS CLEARLY UNQUESTIONABLE AS ITS SOLUTIONS ARE EXPORTED TO THE WHOLE WORLD.

 The Spanish railway industry has contributed very actively to the implementation of the numerous metropolitan, tramway and regional rail networks that make up the modern public transport map in the country. Pulsing and sturdy know-how that is demanded in all corners of the globe.

Along with them, even some organisations, amongst which are Metro de Madrid and TMB (Metro de Barcelona), are diversifying their business lines by exporting their planning models to other suburban networks around the world.

America

In South America there are numerous projects of this nature underway that range from global plans, to turnkey projects, supply of rolling stock and rehabilitation of existing systems. These include, for example, the National Transportation Plan (Costa Rica) or the Strategic Mobility Plan (Ecuador).

There is also a clear presence in suburban areas such as Santo Domingo Metro (Dominican Republic), Fortaleza, Recife, Brasilia and Sao Paulo (Brazil), Santiago de Chile and Valparaíso (Chile), Bogota (Colom- bia), Mexico City, Guadalajara and Monterrey (Mexico), Caracas and Maracaibo (Venezuela) Quito (Ecua- dor) and Panama (Panama) and the future electric train in Guatemala (Guatemala).

Other relevant works undertaken are the modernisation and improvement of the metropolitan railways of Buenos Aires (Argentina); the supervision of the construction of 3 cable car lines between La Paz and El Alto (Bolivia), the railway signalling of Sao Paulo, and the manufacture and signalling of the Cuiabá tramway (Brazil).The imprint of Spanish companies is also in the vicinity of Belo Horizonte (Brazil), the tramway of Ayacucho (Colombia) and San Isidro (Argentina), and the Suburban Railway of the Metropolitan Zone of the Valley of Mexico. In North America the presence continues to be felt. In the United States, it has participated in projects such as Washington Metro and Miami, articulated units in Boston, Pittsburgh, Sacramento and Maryland and the trams of Houston, Seattle, Cincinnati, Phoenix, Kansas and Cagliari, as well as the Austin light rail and Metro. St. Louis; while in Canada the seal of this industry is in networks such as the Toronto light rail or the Ottawa metro.

Europe, Africa and Oceania

Another continent where the solu- tions of the Spanish railway industry are ever more common is Asia, with the awarding of tenders for the Metros of Hong Kong, Beijing, Hanghzou, Shanghai, Xian and Binhai (China), Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam), Singapore Metro (Malaysia), Delhi, Calcutta, Bangalore, Cochi, Chennai, Hyderabad and Mumbai (India). In this city they have also been part of the monorail, in addi- tion to the catenary-free tramway of Kaohsiung (Taiwan) and the light metro in Manila (Philippines).

In Africa, it has participated in the Algiers Metro and the Ouargla tramway (Algeria) and Cairo Metro (Egypt). It should also be pointed out that in the Middle East Spanish companies are present in almost all megaprojects in the region: the construction of three metropolitan railway lines in Riyadh, the elevated section of the Doha metropolitan railway (Qatar), which is one of the largest in the world; the Lusail tram (Qatar). This emerging area has relied on the highly qualified staff this industry offers to undertake projects of major importance such as the master plan of the metropolitan railway of Kuwait City (Kuwait) and the Public Transport Master Plan for Muscat (Oman), the light metropolitan railway of Abu Dhabi and the metro in Dubai (United Arab Emirates) and the light rail system in Astana (Kazakhstan). Alongside these, it has been entrusted with the construction and design of the two most important stations and exchangers (Major Stations Project) of the Qatari network: MSheireb, in the old town, and Education City, in Doha.

In Europe the list is also very extensive: Metro Brussels (Belgium), Hel- sinki (Finland), Stockholm (Sweden) Rome (Italy), Rotterdam (Holland), Bucharest (Romania). They are joined by tramways and light rail systems in Amsterdam (Holland), Edinburgh

(Great Britain), Nantes (France), Athens (Greece), Warsaw (Poland), Luxembourg (Luxembourg), Antalya (Turkey), Belgrade (Serbia), Besancon (France), Birmingham (United Kingdom), Budapest and Debrecen (Hungary), Freiburg and Bielefeld (Germany), Lisbon (Portugal), Tallinn (Estonia), Utrecht (Holland), Saint- Étienne (France) and Dublin (Ireland). Finally, in Australia and New Zealand a clear implantation of the Spanish railway companies begins to take hold. The Sidney and Newcastle tramway, Camberra metro and Auckland commuter rail are a clear example of this.